Weber said that human beings are trapped in the “iron cage” of modernism. Is it progress or degeneration?

2022-05-26 0 By

Our era is an era of rationalization and rationalization, especially the elimination of the charm of the world.It is the fate of our age that all ultimate and noble values have disappeared from the public sphere.Max Weber is a famous German sociologist, political scientist, economist and philosopher.He was Germany’s biggest “public intellectual” a hundred years ago.He studied a wide range of subjects, including sociology, economics, religion, politics, philosophy, history and even music.He even wrote a book on Confucianism and Taoism in China.Weber received his doctorate in law at 25 and was already a full professor at 30, leaving his German peers in the dust.Four years later, Weber suffered from severe depression and left college.Sixteen years later, weber did not return to college until 1918, the year world War I ended.But just two years back, Weber contracted the Spanish flu that ravaged Europe and died in 1920 at the age of 56.It can be said that Weber defined the “modernization” of human beings.The word modernization is very familiar and widely used, but what is the modern human being?Obviously, modern human beings are relative to ancient times or feudal times, and people will regard the beginning of the industrial Revolution as a sign that human beings have entered the modern era.It’s the difference in productivity, the difference in tool use.Modern humans began to convert coal’s heat energy into kinetic energy.But what “idea” in the human mind means that this is a modern person?Weber says modern humans have entered an era of “disenchantment.”What is “qu charm”?It is the human understanding of the world, eliminating the “charm, mystery”.This is a very important ideological change, from ancient people to modern people, human understanding of nature is no longer “mysterious”, but the understanding and use of the world, all based on “science”.In ancient times, there were various mysteries in human understanding of the natural world. For example, in China, people from the emperor to the common people believed that there was “god’s will”, there was a hint from the heaven, there were various “auspicious”, there were also various “ominous”, there were gods and ghosts.However, modern people do not think so, which is “disenchantment”.2. After disenchantment, human beings fall into ideological chaos. After disenchantment, all behaviors of human society follow the basic logic of “science”, and science becomes the only “code of conduct” of human beings.Under the guidance of science, human society progresses and develops greatly and rapidly.Even the interaction and relationship between people should follow science.What is “scientific”?This is something many people probably haven’t thought about.In my opinion, the so-called “scientific” is to meet two points: first, the highest efficiency;Second, the biggest profit.In contrast, for example, if you want to buy a car, you must hope to spend the least money and get the greatest satisfaction, that is, fuel economy, safety, brightness and face, which is your highest investment efficiency, your maximum income, such a choice is “scientific”, for you, is the optimal solution.The pursuit of “maximum efficiency and maximum profit” is behind all the behaviors of the whole human world, following science.For another example, if an enterprise wants to develop a system, what is the most scientific?Obviously, this system is easy to implement, easy to supervise and easy to manage, and in line with the interests of the maximization of enterprises.So science has come up with another concept called instrumental rationality.Instrumental rationality is measuring whether it’s best to do things efficiently and profitably, and just thinking about right and wrong.Opposite to instrumental rationality, value rationality is called “value rationality”. Value rationality does not consider whether it is scientific or not, but whether it is in line with moral and ethical values, which should be measured by “can”.Weber proposed that instrumental reason conducts “factual judgment” while value reason conducts “value judgment”.Fact judgment is objective, but value judgment is subjective.If all human beings are judged by “science”, then the “values” of human beings are in confusion and become different.Because man has lost some of his high respect, some of his expectation and promise of mystery, he has completely become “an instrument of reason”.Due to the loss of the original “unity of values” (such as the mysterious cognition that good is rewarded and the way of Heaven is revealed, etc.), it directly leads to the different values of human beings.For example, people will believe that money is the only criterion for success, that material pursuit is the only meaning of life, that lying down is my freedom, that power, not knowledge, represents social status, that you live today, and so on and so on.Weber said, “The individual must decide, in his own eyes, which is God and which is the devil.”However, under the concept of science, many people are confused about which is God and which is the devil.This is called “the battle of the gods,” weber said, meaning that each person believes in his or her own inner values, and that each person has a “scientific God.”3, “modern iron cage” modern iron cage, derived from human society, in accordance with the principles of science, design of a set of system system.For example, in the company, there is a set of assessment system, which sets KPI for everyone. If they complete it, they are excellent employees, and if they fail to complete it, they are waiting for promotion.This treats people as “tools”, and organizations and societies become mechanical and cold.And people are judged by how much they get in return.Highly paid employees are seen by others as excellent, leaders, and managers who need to be obeyed.This is the iron cage of modernization – the number of utilitarian gains and losses to replace and cover up the moral (moral), intellectual (knowledge) problems.Kymlicka pointed out: in teaching materials on western modern thought of modern people, said to be “self development”, the so-called “self development” is to “improve their competitive”, which means: within people into commodities, in front of the buyers compete with each other, self development is defined as “enhance the value of yourself as a commodity.Is this progress or degradation of mankind?In Chinese traditional culture, there has been such discrimination for a long time.Origins in his book, author pointed out that China’s political civilization in the qin dynasty, in order to legalism as the guiding ideology of the rulers, and the legalists, shang Yang reform, in particular, take people as the “content”, exchange relationship between people’s interests, and behavior are all efforts to seek, the society and the country as a “community” without virtue,This was the root cause of the collapse of the Qin Dynasty.God is dead Nietzsche said, God is dead.It meant that the belief in the “origin” of human beings disappeared, and human beings themselves became their own masters, and human beings themselves became their own Gods.Is this progress or the beginning of tragedy?Although science and technology of today’s human beings have made incomparable progress, their desires have also become incomparable. They pursue more and more advanced material life, while the negative effect is further deterioration of the environment and further wilting of resources.If modern human beings develop for another thousand years, the earth will be able to meet the needs of the people of that era. Only then can we test whether “modernization” is the paradise of human freedom or the “iron cage” of self-restraint.